Brief about Mongolia

At 1,564,116 square kilometres (603,909 sq mi), Mongolia is the 18th-largest and the most sparsely populated sovereign state in the world, with a population of around three million people. It is also the world’s second-largest landlocked country behind Kazakhstan and the largest landlocked country that does not border a closed sea. The country contains very little arable land, as much of its area is covered by grassy steppe, with mountains to the north and west and the Gobi Desert to the south. Ulaanbaatar, the capital and largest city, is home to about 45% of the country’s population. Ulaanbaatar also shares the rank of the world’s coldest capital city with MoscowOttawa, and Nur-Sultan.

Approximately 30% of the population is nomadic or semi-nomadic; horse culture is still integral. The majority of its population are Buddhists. The non-religious population is the second-largest group. Islam is the dominant religion among ethnic Kazakhs. The majority of the state’s citizens are of Mongol ethnicity, although KazakhsTuvans, and other minorities also live in the country, especially in the west. Mongolia joined the World Trade Organization in 1997 and seeks to expand its participation in regional economic and trade groups.

The area of what is now Mongolia has been ruled by various nomadic empires and In 1206 Genghis Khan was able to unite and conquer the Mongols, forging them into a fighting force which went on to establish the largest contiguous empire in world history, the Mongol Empire (1206-1368). Buddhism in Mongolia began with the Yuan emperors’ conversion to Tibetan Buddhism.

After the collapse of the Mongol-led China-based Yuan dynasty in 1368, the Mongols returned to their earlier patterns of internal strife. The Mongols also returned to their old shamanist ways after the collapse of their empire and only in the 16th and 17th centuries did Buddhism reemerge.

At the end of the 17th century, present-day Mongolia became part of the area ruled by the Manchu-led Qing dynasty. During the collapse of the Qing in 1911, Mongolia declared independence but had to struggle until 1921 to firmly establish de facto independence and until 1945 to gain international recognition. As a consequence, Mongolia came under strong Soviet influence: in 1924 the Mongolian People’s Republic was declared, and Mongolian politics began to follow the same patterns as Soviet politics of the time. After the revolutions of 1989, the Mongolian Revolution of 1990 led to a multi-party system, a new constitution in 1992, and a transition to a market economy.

What to see (region)


Interested in Mongolian nature, landscapes, and looking for information about Mongolian geography especially need to know Mongolian mountains, deserts, steppes, forests as well as Mongolia’s must travel places for nature lovers and explorers? You will find here


Western Mongolia is dominated by the Mongol Altai Mountains, which is stretched for 600-650 kilometers and were structured by thin hills, hollows and straight precipitous crags, which have a height of more than 4000 meters. The Great Lakes Depression is situated in the eastern part of the Mongol Altai and consisted of a few hollows with bigger lakes. The Altai mountain range stretching for 900 km across Russian, Mongolia, and China and the Tavan Bogd National Park have always stood out from any other part of Mongolia.


Gobi dominates southern part of Mongolia. Although Gobi is known as a desert, it offers a startlingly diverse landscape, from grassy pastures to dinosaur fossil beds, lunar landscapes, red sandstone formations and white sand dunes and provides grazing for herds of camels, sheep and goats as well as some rare animals as snow leopard, ibex, wild sheep and goats, and antelopes.


Mongolia is not a huge desert, but it is a country of fresh water lakes, rivers, magnificent mountains and heavily forested regions where hillsides and valley meadows are spangled with alpine flowers. Country covered by closed forests. The forests are mainly located in the north-central parts of the country, forming a transition zone between the Great Siberian boreal forest and the Central Asian steppe desert. Taiga zone which covers 5 percent of Mongolian territory occurs only in northern Mongolia, where it is found in the Khentii Mountains, in the mountainous terrain around Lake Khuvsgul, back part of Tarvagatai mountain range, first higher place near Orkhon river and some parts of Khan Khukhii mountain range.


Extensive grassland of steppe makes up the heart of Mongolia both geographically and economically. The entire far eastern part of Mongolia falls into this area extending west below Khangai range to the Great lake basin of Uvs province.


If you travel in Mongolia you will see beautiful natural landscapes of Mongolia and fresh rivers, crystal clear lakes and icy streams.  Mongolia is the world’s most extreme continental climate and notable aridity.  In spite of its aridity, Mongolia has substantial reserves of surface and ground water with almost 4000 rivers, the total length of which is more than 40,390 miles (65,000 km) and 16 large lakes. The rivers are inundated with fresh water resources and abundant fish populations.


Mongolias climate can be described has highly continental dominated climate with warm summers and long, dry and very cold winters. Known as “the land of blue sky”, Mongolia is a very sunny country and has usually about 250 sunny days a year. The country has the world’s most typical continental climate with extreme diurnal and annual ranges of temperature.

Average temperature in most of the country is below zero from November to March and close to it in April and October. 

Winter nights of -40°C are common most years (minimum recorded -55°C at lake Uvs). Summer extremes reach as high as +40°C in the Gobi Desert and +33°C in the capital Ulaanbaatar. Monthly temperature variations of +45°C and more are not uncommon in many regions of Mongolia.

Please find average temperature of Mongolia during the time of your travel.

Mongolian people & Nomads

Mongolia is home to one of the world’s last surviving nomadic cultures, and these nomads still live in traditional ways. Up to 40 percent of Mongolians live as nomadic herders. They mostly live tens of miles away from the nearby communities, villages and towns and live in harsh conditions taking care of their livestock with limited electricity power.

People from Mongolia are known both as Mongolians and Mongols. Mongolian generally refers to the inhabitants of Mongolia and includes non-Mongol ethnic groups that live there such as the Kazakhs. Mongol can refer to the historical Mongols or to the ethic group of Mongolian-speaking, traditionally-pastoral people that live in Outer Mongolia and Inner Mongolia and a few other places in China, Central Asia and Russia. The language these people speak in known as both Mongol and Mongolian. Mongols is also their historical name.

 Mongolia’s population is ethnically quite homogeneous; about 90 percent of the populace speaks one of several dialects of the Mongol language.

Travelers are given the opportunity to spend time with Mongolian nomads, take a rest in Mongolian gers and learn first-hand about the traditional Mongol daily life.

21st Century Nomads: Life In The Mongolian Steppe  21st Century Nomads: Life In The Mongolian Steppe

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